These are known issues identified in our study after the fact. We report them for full transparency, so that our results may be interpreted more accurately and replication may be performed more easily.

  • Non-minimality: All code snippets included in this study were designed to be minimal, so as not to add external sources of confusion into our results. Accidentally, Question 3/4 included an example of a different atom of confusion (Assignment as Value). In this way, the results reflect likely reflect increased confusion rates on both Obfuscated and Transformed snippets in that pair.

  • To remove the bias introduced by code formatting, we chose not to study the effect of whitespace in this study. That decision was made before running the atom existence study, however we chose to include 2 question sets with whitespace related questions just in case. We have not yet analyzed these results or used them for anything, though we have released the data so that other researchers may analyze them. The IDs associated with these questions are 31-36 and 121-126.

  • The source code of Question 39 (Macro Operator Precedence, Obfuscated) had an unintentional semantic error that made the code unable to be compiled. In our instructions we listed that all code would compile without error. As a result we chose to discard all responses from this question from our data. This choice was made before any analysis of our results had begun.

  • The Macro Operator Precedence is designed to test the difference between how functions and how function-like macros evaluate arguments. Accidentally Question 41 parenthesized the arguments to M1 nullifying the confusion.

  • Non-minimality: We were not able to confirm Pointer Arithmetic as an atom. This does not mean pointer arithmetic is not confusing, on the contrary it was one of the more confusing atom types we tested. The Pointer Arithmetic transformed questions 44, 46, and 48, however, together had the highest error rates relative to their obfuscated questions. This indicates that there was likely a secondary source of confusion in these questions beyond the atom itself. It is for this reason that the Pointer Arithmetic questions failed to reach the necessary statistical significance to be considered an atom at this phase.

  • Questions 51/52 (Conditional Operator) contained two, nested, instances of the conditional operator instead of just 1. The results of this question were left in the dataset during analysis, however if we were to re-design this experiment, the question would be simplified to only have one occurence of the atom. While this design flaw may have artificially inflated the effect size we report, we do not believe that removing the redundancy would cause the Conditional Operator atom not to reject the null hypothesis.

  • Non-equivalence: Part of creating atom removal transformations is making sure that question pairs are identical except for the transformation being studied. The obfuscated snippets in Questions 55-58 (Arithmetic as Logic) each had their predicates parenthesized for unambiguous precedence of infix operators. The transformed questions omitted these parentheses which may have introduced inappropriate confusion.

  • Non-equivalence: In some cases we accidentally left other differences between the obfuscated and transformed questions. The atom removal transformation applied to question Question 71 (Preprocessor in Statement) removed more than just the atom in question, it also removed the redundant #define’s which could also have contributed to the measured confusion.

  • Non-minimality: Some of the obfuscated Logic as Control Flow snippets Questions 81/83 use compound expressions that Operator Precedence atoms.

  • Non-equivalence: In Questions 105/106 and 107/108 (Change of Literal Encoding) the static types of the variables being printed differ between the obfuscated and transformed examples, despite being outside the scope of the atom.

  • Architecture-specific: We specifically excluded code that relied on architecture-specific definitions. However, our snippet Question 119 (Type Conversion) relies on the often assumed, but not guaranteed, factor that a byte has 8-bits. While chars are mandated to be the same size as bytes, the size of bytes are not fixed across architectures.